An Eco-critical Reading of William Wordsworth’s “Tintern Abbey”
It is not any more mystery that nature and environment have for quite some time been debased by the human undertakings. The consuming issue of the environmental debasement is likewise reflected in scholarly texts. Especially, in the space of English verse, the connection amongst nature and humankind is one of the frequently examined subjects. With reference to William Wordsworth’s landscape poem “Tintern Abbey”, this paper tries to investigate the worries of eco-feedback and in addition to indicating how the human exercises debased the earth and ecological balance. An Eco-critical Reading of William Wordsworth’s “Tintern Abbey” demonstrates the earth-centered approach and suggests the modern men should perform the environmental kindly treatment. The poem was composed amid the industrialization epoch in which he advocated for the conservation of nature.
The Eco-critical Reading of William Wordsworth’s “Tintern Abbey” makes a connection and demarcation between human and nature through literary text. Moreover, Eco-criticism is defined as the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment (Cheryll Glotfelty 85). Based on this definition, obviously, this poem is a case of eco-critical work. It has conveyed the solid eco-critical suggestions and counters the human-centric reasoning which is the primary driver of ecological debasement at the same time. The classical thought about extraordinary chain of ‘Being’ an anthropocentricism have accentuated the predominance of people over nature. Wordsworth, who, maybe, disappointed from that sort of mindfulness, was hostile to the claim of human predominance. As specified in the poem, the flimsy Tintern Abbey, amidst the normal environment, can be taken as a representation that alludes to a culture which is synthetic, symbolizing the effect of human control over nature. The very expectation of the making working amidst the common encircle itself is an outcome of anthropocentric reasoning. The poem summons the life in the city is loaded with turmoil, anguish and irritable circumstances. In any case, it grandstands that nature is an image of peace and agreement. It tries to demonstrate that it is a fretful life of the city, mankind will end up upset, and life will end up useless. In any case, if individuals understand the significance of nature, it will offer them an agreeable life. This is striking in Wordsworth’s account of his experience. Amid the five years, that is from 1793 to 1798, when Wordsworth was “in lonely rooms’, in the midst of “the din of towns and cities’, he was ‘in the hour of weariness’’, and was discouraged by the tragic happenings around him. The memory of nature sedated his mind and gave him peace and happiness, lightening his distress and dejection. Wordsworth greatly depicts the reward offered by nature, if mankind adores it:
And what perceive; well pleased to recognize
In nature and the language of the sense,
The anchor of my purest thoughts, the nurse,
The guide, the guardian of my heart, and the soul
Of all my moral being. (109-113)
Wordsworth understands that not at all like people, nature will never deceive ‘the heart that loved her’. Subsequently, if individuals defend nature from all synthetic threats and every single ecological danger, it will in return guard, nurse and guide them. Wordsworth endeavors to express that man isn’t the ruler of nature. He encourages everybody to understand his or her obligation of adoring and safeguarding nature. Wordsworth’s demeanor to nature on his “Tintern Abbey” can be arranged into three phases: childhood, youth, and phase of change where third has solid eco-critical perspective. He, at first stage, which is similarly regarded as the phase of a body, was uninformed of the estimation of nature and in this way did not understand and value its excellence and worth. At this stage, he had just the sense view of the beautiful magnificence of nature, and satisfaction offered by nature. In this way, amid his first visit, he was loaded with fear as opposed to euphoria and says:
I bounded o’er the mountains, by the sides
Of the deep rivers, and the lonely streams,
Wherever nature led: more like a man
Flying from something that he dreads, than one
Who sought the thing he loved. (70-74)
From an eco-critical point of view, the youth phase of Wordsworth is a phase of numbness which symbolizes the current past existence of humankind. At the outset, the crude individuals were near nature. With the development of globalization and modernization, the general population in the current past had neglected to seek after the value of nature and had turned out to be oblivious of its significance to their reality. Along these lines, the modernization and logical progressions, they had been affecting on nature all sort of wounds as deforestation, contaminations, atomic tests, over-utilization of regular assets, and so forth. Subsequently, common cataclysms like a tidal wave, quake, a worldwide temperature alteration and atmosphere changes have been showing up over and over.
In his youth, which is regarded as the phase of mind, Wordsworth was enamored by the outer magnificence of nature, the hues, and types of nature. His contact with nature and mellowed him and influenced him to feel for the sufferings of his kindred creatures. Be that as it may, he didn’t defend at his “thoughtless youth’’. This stage speaks to the current conditions on the planet. Individuals have turned out to be mindful of the significance of nature to their reality, and they have acknowledged after the wave and late climatic changes that human life isn’t conceivable without nature. Nonetheless, the measures that have been taken on the planet at display are not sufficient to shield the earth from the ecological emergency that is pervasive.
The third phase of his life is the phase of change or the phase of insightfulness wherein Wordsworth starts to rationalize why he should feel for the sufferings of his fellow human beings. When he starts to rationalize, he discovers that a similar standard which is in him is available in every other being. As it were, there is ‘one underlying principle’ which is inescapable in all beings:
And I have felt
A presence that disturbs me with the joy
Of elevated thoughts; a sense sublime
Of something far more deeply interfused,
Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns,
And the round ocean and the living air,
And the blue sky and in the mind of man:
A motion and the spirit, that impels
All thinking things, all objects of all thought,
And rolls through all things. (95-104)
Wordsworth’s connection with nature has influenced him to encounter the inconspicuous rule. That is the reason, at whatever point he takes a gander at nature, he is reminded of the sufferings of the individuals, and he feels for them. Like Wordsworth, there is a requirement for each person in the present world to see the quickening guideline of the world with the goal that a closeness for nature might be created, and along these lines, nature and humankind might be protected from a wide range of dangers that would annihilate them. A few pundits allude to this guideline as God and relate it with polytheism. To keep away from additionally banters on this, the quickening guideline could be regarded as inborn esteem and worth of nature. Regardless of whether one puts stock in God or not, one can’t preclude the imperativeness from claiming interrelationship between nature and human beings. Like Wordsworth, each individual should love and acknowledge nature, and ought to see the celestial excellence in it. Everybody ought to understand the centrality of nature in his or her life and ought to contribute to its security. Every one of us should endeavor to put an end to all that is hurtful exercises to nature, and ought to receive shield both individual and in addition nature. It is very fundamental for the human world to create regard and respect for the normal world.
What can we make the conclusion from An Eco-critical Reading of William Wordsworth’s “Tintern Abbey”?
Wordsworth through the poem “Tintern Abbey”, has demonstrated an approach to set up a superior world and a superior life, and has shown how a cozy association with nature could be made to bring forth quiet and amicable life on the planet. He encourages everybody to gain from the past. Along these lines, the poem “Tintern Abbey” is a common eco-critical work which endeavors to advance the connection between nature and human beings. It likewise in a roundabout way encourages individuals to think back and perceive how people have carried on towards nature previously, and what the outcomes of their human-centric demeanor towards nature are. It additionally demands the need to take legitimate measures to set up amicability with nature.
Glotfelty, Cheryll. “Literary Studies in an Age of Environmental Crisis.” Environmental Literature and Criticism. Kathmandu: Oxford Books. 82-104.
Wordsworth, William. “Tintern Abbey”. A Course Packet of Primary Texts. Kathmandu: Oxford Books. 54-57.