Basic Communication Skills
Introduction to communication
Having the capacity to communicate viably is the most critical fundamental skills. Communication is just the demonstration of exchanging data starting with one individual then onto the next. It takes place in different forms like; vocal (voice), composed (printed or advanced media, for example, books, magazines, sites or messages), visual (logos, maps, outlines or diagrams) or non-verbally (non-verbal communication, signals and the tone and pitch of voice). How well this data can be transmitted and gotten is a measure of how great our communication skills. The capacity to convey information precisely, plainly and as expected, is an essential fundamental ability and something that ought not to be neglected. Professionally, in the event that you are applying for occupations or searching for an advancement with your current manager, you will in all likelihood need to show great relational abilities. Communicational skills are expected to talk properly with a wide assortment of individuals while keeping up great eye to eye connection, exhibit a fluctuated vocabulary and tailor your dialect to your gathering of people, listen viably, display your thoughts suitably, compose obviously and compactly, and function admirably in a gathering. Huge numbers of these are basic abilities that businesses look for. As your vocation advances, the significance of relational abilities builds; the capacity to talk, tune, being referred to and compose with clearness and compactness are fundamental for most administrators and leaders.
Moreover, communication is essential for every organization where people work together. These kinds of multiple social and non-social organizations should undergo certain kind of communication process. This is required for them in order to perform and accomplish the targeted strategies in a perfect way. Communication takes place when meetings, appointments, contacts, activities are held in an organization. In order to conduct various types of discussions in an appropriate way, we need a number of building blocks. These building blocks are called basic communication skills. Generally, in a communication, we require at least to conversational partners. They are sender and receiver. Former is a person who sends out a message and later is supposed to receive the message. This shows these two communicational partners have the distinct functional importance of their respective position.
The basic communication further makes a groundlaying for sender skill and receiver skill. The sender skills involve regulating and assertive skills. Former talks about how one influences the structure and direction of conversations whereas the latter skills with the purpose of conversation and reveal as clearly as possible what we think and want. Therefore, we can hold all types of conversation with the help of basic communication skills. It is believed that in the communication activity, members of communication can direct and control over it as per their intentions if they effectively can do it.
Basic communication skills involve the following essential skills
The purpose of regulating skills is to protect the order and clarity of the conversation. This skill is necessary to monitor and regulate the meaningful progress of the conversation. Regulating skill grips its participants in terms of the goal of the conversation. Meanwhile, it alerts its participants not to deviate from the main purpose of the conversation. In doing so, regulating skills offer three strategic components of the conversation. They are described in the subsequent paragraphs below.
- Opening the conversation and setting the goal
At the very beginning of the conversation, we have to supply our intentions fairly soon to our conversational partner. That said, how exactly we initiate the conversation is naturally dependent upon the situation. An opening of the conversation either formally or informally is often determined by the circumstances you are in. We can begin a conversation with the discussion of general things. This helps to create a relaxed environment for the initiation of conversation, but there are some people who do not like talking about such generalities. What they think is time is not being efficiently utilized and on the other hand, one may not know how to end the generalities. That’s why while dealing with such people we need to begin with our major points or important subjects. In the formal or informal beginning of the conversation, we must be clear about intentions of our talk because it promotes the smooth progress of the communication. This is how we have to let our conversational partner know about goal and intention of the discussion early in the imminent conversation.
- Goal evaluation
This section deals with the goal of an ongoing conversation and also makes evaluation meanwhile. As we know goals always occupy the major area of the conversation. It is always oriented to problem-solving. It is very useful to ask goal evaluation question. It makes us aware of are we still busy with goals that are initially set or not? This kind of evaluation helps to know whether goals are attainable or not. Similarly, we should be alert to engage and move the conversation ahead smoothly.
- Closing the conversation
It is normally assumed to make known the time available at the initiation of the dialogue. A clear agreement about the length of time has to be made for effective communication. For example, half hour or an hour as per your need. It is important to keep an eye on the set time because within the fixed time we must seek to achieve the goal. As we achieve it, it is better to close the conversation. So, time and goals are essential factors of the conversation. They always make us do things in the given time so that it saves us from wasting time and diverting from the subject.
- Listening Skills
Clarity and good structure are not only important things because they will fail to make the conversation effective if the conversational partner does not listen to you. This gives an equal emphasis to listening skills as well. When partner pays good attention to you then the dialogue will make some outputs. It helps your rationale of conversation to have perfection. So, listening skills involve basically non-selective listening skills: attentive behaviour and selective listening skills.
- ‘Non’-selective listening skills
‘Non’-selective listening skill is explained in a way that the listener has a little influence on the conversation. He gives other people to explain their story all the time and only responds by giving attention. So, to stimulate the conversational partner this skill is necessary.
On the other hand, selective-listening skills are used by listeners in order to know about certain important aspects of the conversation. That said, non-selective listening skills are hardly used alone. When one pays attention to someone’s story he unconsciously finds important and gives more attention to that part of the conversation.
Non-selective listening skills has its following adherents.
- Nonverbal behaviour
- Facial expression
Whether you are interested or not in the conversation or what other person is saying, your facial expression tells it to some extent. By smiling you can show interest, kindness, and sympathy which have stimulating effects on the speaker.
- Eye contact
Eye contact is the second part of nonverbal behavior. Stimulating eye contact means that your eyes should meet speaker’s eyes once in a while. You should not avoid it completely nor stare all the time.
- Body posture
Body posture is the third aspect. Whether you have an interest in other person or not can be detected by your body posture. Friendly and relaxed posture show you have interest in your conversational partner.
- Encouraging gestures
This is the last aspect of the non- verbal behavior. Your nodding and making supportive gestures and avoiding distracting movements often show that your attention to your conversational partner and this gestures stimulate the speaker to perpetuate talking.
- Verbal following
This is the second non-selective way of demonstrating your interest in the conversation. This strategy wants you to make comments in the line of what speaker is saying. And you are not supposed to interrupt them by talking about a new subject.
- Minimal encouragers
Minimal encouragers are the short verbal expression to your speaker. This stimulates the speaker to talk enthusiastically and it also makes your speaker feel that he is being listened to. For examples, utterances like hum, umm, uh-huh, yes-yes, go on, great, and so on. These utterances may not have a great influence but are stimulating the speaking.
Selective listening skills
This skill deals with how reactive and active you are taking participation in the conversation with your speaker. To engage and pay more attention to the expression of the speaker, you can ask even questions and explores more contents of the conversation. In doing so, different followings skills are necessary.
- Asking question
What the speaking saying during the conversation should be clear. In this process, listeners should ask many questions about the subject that helps the speaker to put his thoughts in actual, clear and comprehensive words. Listeners are expected to ask following questions:
This question can be usually made by using What or How which demand the responses in their own words as per their wishes. For example, how may I help you?/ what would you like to talk about? Similarly, Why questions are also open-ended-questions in which people have the freedom to makes reasons in their own words and way.
- Close questions
Close questions are more objective in its nature. They demand answers either yes or no. For examples; Do you like that project?/ were you disappointed when you failed the exams?
Similarly when questions are also used in conversation to show that you are active. When questions demand an objective answer out of many options after all.
- Paraphrasing content
Paraphrasing content is the second selective listening skills. This suggests the listeners tell the whole story that has been said by the speaker, in a brief and in their own words. This is normally done at end of the conversation. This is based on the factual information and data.
- Reflection of feeling
This is all about the feeling of the speaker which is tried to be reflected by listeners. It literally means mirroring of feelings of the interviewee or speakers. This is the statement made by interviewer out of what the interviewee says.
Concreteness means letting the speaker tell their stories in a concrete or precise form in the conversation. It is all about the straight-forward and clear conversation between listeners and the speakers. The aforementioned rules like listening minimal encouragers, open and closed questions, paraphrasing etc contribute to making the conversation more concrete in its core.
This is the recapitulation of the entire conversation. The main goal of the summarising is to give a certain structure to the conversation through the ordering of major points.
The section of the basic communication focuses on the number of so-called Senders skills. The distinctions between skills where you take the initiation and the skills with which you to somebody in the conversation will be clarified. The outline differences between two are presented below.
- Sender Skills-initiative involves the following components.
- Giving information: it is an important thing to give an information to other people about the subject they want to know. As an employee of an organization, you have to give such information to the clients and other concerned people. When a meeting is held, you need to present a plan which requires you to explain details of the project. You have to inform them about the functions. So, the major question is how to present those details of the information to the audiences. The following fours factors are necessary to make an efficient delivery of the information.
- Structure: by the use of structure in the communication, we mean the clarity and the orderliness of an amount of information. In the conversation with people, firstly we need to make a number of points so that explanation about them will be easy for both listeners and the speaker. As a speaker, you have to clearly deal with each of the points one after another.
- The simplicity of style: while making a conversation with other people, we must think about the way we talk. This means you have to use simple and comprehensive language. Short sentences, known words, clear ordering and etc should be used. At the same time, the speaker should have a calm tempo. If you want to show off your expertise impressive use of the language then your conversational partner will have opposite effects on your dialogue. You have to think of the level of education, experience, expertise on the subject matter.
- Conciseness: This means the conversation should be consisted and short in its nature. We have to focus on the thoroughness, conclusiveness, concreteness, and succinctness. Information should be explained clearly and shortly without wasting the time. There is a restriction to give the unnecessary information.
- Attractiveness: this is a method of how much you can stimulate your conversational partner into the discussion. There are two ways to make them participate actively. First one is content of the conversation that means giving examples and unforced wording in the spoken language. The second is a relationship between the speaker and the partner which says that they have to maintain and strengthen the relationship by making frequent contact.
- Making a request and giving instructions: This deals with how to make a request to people and get the jobs done. As an employer, you have to have such skills to make effective communication. The followings concepts are useful for making a request and giving instructions.
- Sub-assertive means: when you are sub-assertive, you let the others walk over you. It means you are dependent and dare not make the request what you want. You are afraid of the conflicts.
- Aggressive means: This means you are authoritative. You can silence the people and also make laugh.
- Assertive means: you are independent and responsible for yourself. You are not moved by other people and you are daring to get your jobs done.
- Giving criticism: Giving clarification is often said to be a difficult job. There are several reasons for this. If you criticise someone, you have a fear that your relationship will be altered. The following points will limit ourselves to giving criticism to people.
- Giving criticism of an opinion: Giving criticism of an opinion is set to change the mind of other. It requires fair and clear criticism and your own behaviors should be clear as well. The tone of voice also needs to be apparent in the conversation.
- Giving criticism of someone’s behavior: It is a great mistake to generalize the criticism of a person. When criticising others’ behavior, your behaviors also should be fair and clear. This helps you strong enough to dare to give a criticism.
- Situation Clarification: This is useful in many situations. This is the skills of perceiving the emerging problems and misunderstanding in time, realizing the importance and discussing them. The aim of this skills is to bring out the clarity and restore the conversation in a smooth way.
- Sender Skills- Reactive involves the following components: This skill involves the followings adherents.
- Refusing: In our normal lives and even in the organization, we often have to receive many requests. But they are not always reasonable to take them for granted. So followings are useful ways to deal unacceptable requests.
- Sub-assertive: This is about the fulfillment of demands even though you know the request is not reasonable at all. You just feel dissatisfied yourself because you do things which you avoid. This shows you have got a problem.
- Aggressive: You happen to refuse the request without considering it. You often do it in an unfriendly manner/ tone. It makes other feel insulted and the whole atmosphere may go out of balance.
- Assertive: when you tell the reasons for why you are not willing to fulfill their demand. In dealing such issues, you just do it with calm and comfortable way. You use your intelligence and make them convincing. You are very clear about your position. Though people insist, you repeat calmly and you do not do things as per their say.
- Reacting to criticism: It is a skill of how to react to the criticisms about you. As we know criticisms are not always positive. They might be opposite and often made against to you. In this situation, you have to follow these ways given below.
- Reacting to Criticism of Your Opinion: first of all, it is important to listen to your criticism calmly and should not ask for sorry immediately. You just agree with oppositions when they make criticism. Secondly, what you do is you can put your disagreements to the opposition. To reach a conclusion, you go through rigorous discussion and even can take help of the third party if needed.
- Reacting to criticism about your Behaviors: In this stage too, you roughly have to follow the same ways as mentioned earlier point. Firstly, we have to receive the criticism about our behaviors calmly and try to understand the criticism. If you ask them to repeat if do not understand. After listening carefully, it is easy to find out whether it is genuine or constructive. Finally, you have to delve into the criticism and should declare whether you agree or not.
To sum up, the conversation is always not a simple matter. It requires many skills for the sake of effective dialogue between its participants. It takes place in different forms of verbal, non-verbal and composed form, etc. Basically, basic communication involves regulating skill, listening skills, and sender skills.